According to the data of the State employment service, there are 20.5 million people employed in Ukraine or 60% of the able-bodied population in the age between 15 and 70 years old. The figures have slightly improved comparing to 2012 (59.5%). At the same time, the figures of employment data differ significantly from the unemployment rate, which made 2% in January. As of February 1, the average enrolment competition was ten applicants per one vacancy.

However, experts say that last year the domestic labor market grew. Employers were looking for workers even during festivals and summer holidays, while job seekers traditionally preferred vacations. Positive dynamics was observed in all basic sectors of the market.

ForUm has decided to find out what is going on at the labor market and what to expect in the future.
Who is in demand?

With the year beginning, companies launched active headhunting, as these companies have reached new markets and strengthened their positions on the existing ones. According to the head of the regional net of Brain Source International Yulia Pasechna, the major part of vacancies is in sales sectors B2C (business to client) and B2B (business to business). These jobs are for young people with three-year-experience maximum (63% of vacancies). In 18% of vacancies, employers seek specialists with six-year-experience maximum and in 17% of cases - very young sellers, development director of staff portal Tetyana Topchiy says. "Super-experienced professionals with more than 6 years of experience are not in high demand - only 2% of vacancies," she adds.
In the majority of cases, the vacancies are for direct sale specialists, client managers and sales management. The salaries vary: 3-4 thousand hryvnias for beginners and $10-12 thousand for sales directors.

Due to rapid development of information and communication technologies, IT specialists remain traditionally in demand. Tetyana Topchiy also notes that there are offers for support service workers, software developers (2/3 of vacancies) and technical directors. Salaries remain at the level of 2012: UAH 5000 for support service workers, UAH 16-18 thousand for Java-programmers, up to UAH 24 thousand for senior programmers and starting from UAH 20 thousand for technical directors.

Bankers also remain in demand, both in Kyiv and in regions. Credit managers are offered a salary starting from UAH 3000, department chief - up to UAH 6000 and banking service managers - starting from UAH 2000. There is also demand for young workers without experience - apprentice, copywriters, secretaries. The offered salary ranges between UAH three and four thousand.
Speaking about marketing manager, employers seek personnel for IT marketing. Specialists on website promotion are offered up to UAH 10 thousand, marketing department manager - UAH 5000, experienced brand-manager - UAH 20 thousand.

Deficit of manual workers

Analysts say that people do not eager to take manual working vacancies, which leads to certain misbalance. Deputy director of the Employment service Maryna Aglotkova says that as of February 1 there were more than 10 thousand open vacancies for tool workers and more than seven thousand vacancies for machinery workers. In Kyiv, for example, Antonov's aircraft plant is now seeking workers of all basic manual professions (probably due to increased number of orders for aircrafts).

In turn, president of the "Crimean soda plant" Vladyslav Shmelkov comments: "Everybody wants to become white-collar workers, to go in the office and work on pads. But it is impossible. Someone has to take a tool. The market suffers deficit of manual workers, including lathe operators, lorry crane operators, excavator drivers, heat engineers. But CVs we get the most are from economists, accountants, lawyers. There is misbalance already at the level of education and staff preparation, and crisis has nothing to do with this. Plants, which do not show big figures of growth, still develop new sectors and need worker, always."

Indeed, vocational schools now make more and more office professions, not manual workers as it used to be. The country, however, is overflowed with such personnel. "The main task of vocational school is to train manual workers, but current graduates have only average level of technical preparation. To make them true professionals, plants have to assign tutors, and such training lasts for at least a year. Moreover, training programs of vocational schools are out of date. The world develops, technologies develop, equipment is upgraded, but the education system remains the same as in soviet times. As a result, graduates from vocational schools run into a surprise at their first working place," Shmelkov says.

The Ministry for social policy agrees that the development of economy is impossible without balance between labor resources and real demand. Thus, according to deputy minister Lidia Drozdova, in all developed countries the priority is to form human and labor resources with high-leveled education and in accordance with economy demand. "While on Ukrainian market we have imbalance between supply and demand and structural disaccord between workers' preparation and economy's needs," the official adds.

What to expect tomorrow?

The requirements to candidates have not changed much, Brain Source International notes. Employers seek "the best" candidates, but the image of "the best" varies. Anyway, employers consider maximum candidates possible before taking a decision. At the same time, employers often exaggerate with requirements offering relatively law basic salary. Moreover, employers often announce not a real income, but a salary the worker may get in case of successful accomplishment of tasks. 

Tetyana Topchiy specifies that the salary level depends on several factors. First of all, it is the position (clerks, middle-management, top), then the sector (the highest offers are in IT companies, agribusiness, pharmaceuticals). Secondly, it is the structural division - marketing director of a company engaged into direct distribution costs more that the same position in a company doing regional power distribution.

Thirdly, it is the form of ownership (state or private, Ukrainian or foreign). In the majority of cases, foreign companies offer better conditions, but set different requirements, like knowledge of English and working experience in a big team.

Default requirements also change, HR expert Rina Radchenko adds. Thus, 10 years ago, fluency in computer was not an obvious option, and Internet was a mystery. But now, computer skills are obligatory not only for office personnel, but for also for many other professions. Other requirements to candidates include analytic ability, teamwork, time planning, professional development.

Tetyana Topchiy believes that the spring of 2013 will be active, and the market revival will reach its peak in the middle of March. "I do not see any reasons which could weaken business activity in the first quarter," the analyst says. Positive dynamics will continue through the year without a break for summer holidays, as the economy of the country keeps recovering from the global economic crisis.

Speaking about expectation for the next 3-5 years, economists say the labor market will need specialists in the following sectors:

1. Engineering.
2. IT and software development.
3. Nanotechnologies.
4. Specialities across electronic engineering and bioengineering.
5. Marketing and sales.
6.Consumer services.
7. Logistics.
8. Ecology.
9. Medical specialities on prolongation of life.
10. Chemistry.

It means that the labor market of Ukraine will develop not only quantitatively, but also qualitative, taking into account high-tech trends of XXI century, which obligatory condition for the victory over crisis consequences and for economic reforms.

Andriy Boyarunets


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