Ukrainians, for who the native city is no longer home and new metropolis is not home yet, are not so few. According to the State Statistics, more than 321 thousand Ukrainians moved around Ukraine in the first half of 2012. On average, it is 121 Ukrainians per ten thousand of population.
Psychologists note that when moving people change in character. "New experience changes us, makes us to redefine life. The change of scene can cause various emotions: from delight and joy to worries and fears. Such emotions leave their marks on man's psyche," political psychologist Bogdan Babich says.
ForUm has wondered where our fellow citizens go and what drives them to take this decision.
Everybody to the capital: true or false?
The time brings its corrections in the migration processes. If earlier people believed that in order to 'reach the stars' one should go to the capital, now the statistics proves otherwise.
"Is there a point to leave a good job and own apartment for uncertain perspectives of the capital?" Ukrainians living in regions wonder. Psychologists have an explanation to this question. "Eternal question: a bird in the hand or two in the wood? It depends on the personality of a person, his character, temper, age, prevailing stereotypes and moods in the society," Bogdan Babich states.
In fact, the number of Ukrainians who moved to Kyiv in the first half of this year is significant: 16 thousand 689 people. At the same time, though, 23 thousand 600 people said goodbye to the capital for the same period.
Taking into account regional levels, it's worth mentioning that Kyiv region is not the leader on guests number. In the first half of 2012 the majority of Ukrainians rushed to Donetsk region - 24 310 people against 19 096 people moving to Kyiv region.
However, we cannot ignore the fact that people leaving Donbass are bigger in number than the comers, while the migration inflow in the capital regions made almost 6.5 thousand people.
Among other popular regions, there are Dnepropetrovsk, Kharkiv and Odessa regions. However, the number of comers and goers is almost equal. Lviv region has become popular recently as well. 15 thousand people moved there in the first half of the year, but 16 thousand people left at the same time.
Among outsiders of this statistics there are Zakarpattya and Chernovytska region. Only four thousand people decided to move there for the first year half.
Data of the state employment center explains the disproportional process of migration. The 'comfort zone' directly depends on employment issue. The database of the state employment center numbered 843 thousand vacancies in the first half of 2012, and the third part of them was concentrated in Crimea, Kyiv, Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk and Kharkiv regions.
"The employment situation depends on regional characteristics. Thus, vacancies for lawmakers, state officials and managers are opened mainly in Kyiv, while two thirds of the vacancies of mining industry enterprises are concentrated in Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk and Luhansk regions," deputy director f the state employment center Galyna Kalyshenko explains.
It's worth mentioning that the internal migration processes affect the situation in small towns and villages. "Rural areas lack qualified workers of agroindustrial sector, teachers and medical workers," Galyna Kalyshenko adds. It turns out that there are job offers in rural areas, but there is no perspective for career progress, thus young specialists pack and go.
What drives people to move?
The first and foremost reason for 'transmigration of people' is employment situation. Both specialists in employment sector and psychologists agree with this.
According to Bogdan Babich, in 80% of migration cases people want to escape complicated living conditions. "Labor migration is not always a search of 'better life' or 'high salaries'. First of all, the matter concerns any stable job. "Involuntary migrant" means personal tragedy, social injustice and psychological weakness, financial problems and fears for the future or, on the contrary, a desire to prove that 'I have a right' or that 'what doesn't kill me makes me stronger'," the specialist says.
The salary level on the new place is due in no small part to the decision to move. Moreover, the level of average salary varies from region to region, while the prices for commodities are approximately the same all over the country.
According to the State Statistics, the biggest salaries are in Kyiv (UAH 4509), Donetsk region (UAH 3436), Kyiv region (UAH 3102), Dnipropetrovsk region (UAH 3088) and Luhanks region (UAH 3025).
Psychologists also note that if 80% of migrants move to escape problems, 20% of citizens consider moving as a positive thing. It concerns that category of people, who come to big cities or the capital for career development, self-realization. However, regardless of reasons, nobody can escape the standard process of adaptation to the new place, and how long it will last and what it will result in depends on a person.
"I will fight till the end..."
Specialists note that to overcome the changes a person should adapt to the new situation or to change the situation as he sees fit. The most important is not to lose patience and optimism. "Previous experience and outside information also play an important role in the adaptation process. People who set themselves for success have more chances to adapt," Bogdan Babich says. The psychologist recommends not to retire into one's shell. There are many ways to overcome the stress, including walking outside, physical exercises, healthy sleep and socializing. "The best way is to do something that brings you happiness. Don't give up, because problems are temporary, while health is forever."
However, the decision to choose peace in a settled environment or rush and uncertainty in a different city belongs to a person and the person only. Whatever people choose, they all have their justified reasons.
In order to learn whether the statistics of migration processes corresponds to the moods of very Ukrainians, ForUm has decided to talk to some citizens who know from experience what it means to move from one place to another.
Kateryna, returned from Kharkiv to Energodar:
- The choice of the city was obvious (Energodar is in Kharkiv region - ed.). I always wanted to go a metropolis, and not only because of better perspectives and high salaries, but also because of the desire to prove myself in a big city, to meet new people and to live like never before. However, the first thing I had to face was psychological pressure. The hopes to adapt fast disappeared very fast. Moreover, I had to face total loneliness: I had nobody to call, nobody to meet. As a result, I felt like there was no point in coming there. After tons of sweets and antidepressant drugs you become to understand that your native city is not so bad. Even if it does not have such bright perspectives as in a metropolis, at least you feel alive here. That's why I decided to come home.
Anna, six years ago moved from Donetsk to Kharkiv and one year ago moved to the capital:
- The move was not something unexpected. Living in Kharkiv, I was searching for a job in Kyiv, thus was ready to move at any time. As for the adaptation to the new area and new people, I cannot say I had problems, may be because I already had an experience of moving or may be because I had friends in Kyiv.
- I don't even think about moving. I've been working hard in my native city to have what I have. Now I have a good job and my own apartment. I don't see a point in leaving all this and start from the beginning somewhere else. I am happy with the results of my efforts. Moreover, this is my native city, my family and friends are here.
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